Bibliography

1. Calderoni, Jose. “Telesecundaria: Using TV to Bring Education to Rural Villages.” Education and Technology Tecnical Note Series 3.2 (1998). Print.

This article analyses the education program known as Telesecundaria. Mexico has been addressing the educational needs of children living in rural villages. A fifteen minute tv segment is played, followed by forty five minutes of in class instruction. This method has worked well, is cost-effective and has been successful in keeping students enrolled in school throughout high school. Telesecundaria is a form of media that works well in the educational environment of rural villages.

2. De Moura Castro, Claudio. “Mexico’s Telesecundaria, Bringing Education by Television to Rural Areas.” TechKnowLogia (1999): 29-32. Print.

This article, printed in an educational journal, explains the pattern and plan of Telesecundaria in secondary schools of rural Mexico. According to the article, this is one of few programs that have proved to be more effective than popular public school programs. It results in better test scores and better flow rates, meaning more students that participate in Telesecundaria stay in school than those going to public school. This article draws off of Calderoni’s article on the same educational program.

3. Estill, Adriana. “The Mexican Telenovela and Its Foundational Fictions.” Latin American Literature and Mass Media. By Solda%u0301n Edmundo Paz and Debra A. Castillo. New York: Garland Pub., 2001. 170-89. Print.

4.Laura Podalsky. “The Young, the Damned, and the Restless: Youth in Contemporary Mexican Cinema.” Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media 49.1 (2008): 144-60. Print.

5. Levison, D. “Youth Education and Work in Mexico.” World Development 29.1 (2001): 167-88. Print.

6 .Shrum, L. J. “Assessing the Social Influence of Television: A Social Cognition Perspective on Cultivation Effects.” Communication Research 22.4 (1995): 402-29. Print.

The author uses the cultivation theory to analyze how television influences social behavior. She starts out assuming that television does have an impact, and sets out to prove that the cultivation theory does make sense when viewed from a social cognitive standpoint.

7. Zigerell, James J., George W. Hazzard, and Joel Charles. “Media in Education.” Change 8.5 (1976). Print.

8. Hull, Glynda A. “Youth Culture and Digital Media: New Literacies for New Times.” Research in the Teaching of English38.2 (2003): 229-33. Print.

This article is concerned with the advancement of media in today’s world and how it affects the youth. According to this article, the youth of today must be literate in understanding the media and know how to access it in order to make informed decisions. If they understand the media around them and how it affects the world they live in, they will be more likely to reflect on their past, make decisions about the present, and have appropriate goals for the future. In my research, I will be sure to ask the youth of rural Mexico what kind of access they have to media, or what limits to media they may encounter. I want to know how this affects their goals for the future, or if they feel it even has an impact on them.

9. Rivadeneyra, Rocio, L. Monique Ward, and Maya Gordon. “Distorted Reflections: Media Exposure and Latino Adolescents’ Conceptions of Self.” Media Psychology9.2 (2007): 261-90. Print.

This article focuses on the way youth is affected by the way Latins are portrayed in the media. The author talks about how it has been proven that the media provides a strong social influence on youth and that it can affect how they see the world, and how they see themselves. The ways in which television socializes the youth is not always positive. Latinos in the media are often portrayed based on negative stereotypes and may even be belittled at times. According to the authors, this causes a greater likelihood that Latin youth will display higher rates of low self-esteem. This article will be useful to my research because a lot of television shows that are made in the U.S. are played in Mexico. If the youth of Mexico see themselves portrayed in a negative light, that will affect how they see themselves and what they believe themselves capable of in their futures.

10.Wanta, Wayne, Guy Golan, and Cheolhan Lee. “Agenda Setting and International News: Media Influence of Public Perceptions on Foreign Nations.” J&MC Quarterly81.2 (2004): 364-77. Print.

This article focuses on the impact that national media has on the people’s perception of foreign countries. Mexico is not the only country measured, but it is included in the study. The research concludes that the public becomes interested in the countries that are most followed by the media, and most covered in the news. There is also evidence that the media can influence the public in the way they think about the countries, depending on whether the media coverage is positive or negative. Interestingly enough, Mexico proves to be a little different when it comes to this pattern. Mexico is one of the few countries in the study that received negative media coverage, but the way way most of the country viewed them was positive. This may because they are our neighbors and because there has been a lot of immigration from that country so everybody has had some personal interaction with a Mexican. This article raises several relevant questions to my personal research because it gives evidence that the way a country is portrayed in the media has influence on the people who view it. If the youth of rural Mexico view positive portrayals of other countries, say the U.S., will they have hopes to migrate one day? If Mexico is portrayed in a negative light, will they have lower self-esteem and will their goals not be as positive as they could be?

11. Phinney, J. S., K. Baumann, and S. Blanton. “Life Goals and Attributions for Expected Outcomes among Adolescents from Five Ethnic Groups.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 23.4 (2001): 363-77. Print.

This article studies the goals and expected outcomes set by students of five different ethnic groups, Mexican-Americans included. They found that Mexican youth had lower expectations in furthering their education and attaining a college degree. According to the article, youth who have lower goals and expectations see less results. Youth tend to work towards what seems realistic and for Mexican-American youth, a college-grad worthy career doesn’t seem easily within reach, therefore they often do not set their goals higher nor do they reach higher. This seems applicable to my research, although it deals with students in the U.S. The way it is relevant is because youth in rural areas of Mexico do not have easy access to university education, the same way Mexican-Americans don’t have the easy access to education that they would want here in the U.S. Do the students of rural Guanajuato lower their goals and expectations because they do not feel like they are attainable even if they reached for them? I would like to see how high they set their goals if there were no limits.

12.McLaughlin, H. James, and Lynn A. Bryan. “Learning From Rural Mexican Schools About Commitment and Work.” Theory Into Practice42.4 (2003): 289-95. Print.

This article shows how social responsibility in the classroom can have a significant outcome in the way students will feel about work and responsibility in the future. Studying several rural communities in Mexico, these researchers found that school children were expected to help each other, help keep the school clean, and participate in class functions. While observing, they hardly heard a single complaint and the students knew ahead of time what they had to do and didn’t hesitate to do it when the time came. The conclusion states that the students learn social skills and social responsibility based on a metaphor of guidance. The teacher is there to guide them to commit to their responsibilities and to develop skills that would make them contributors to society. I am wondering if in the schools that use Telesecundaria, would the media play a role in guiding these kids towards understanding their responsibilities? Does the media used in the classrooms influence the way they feel about civic duty and social responisibility? What about the media they encounter at home and away from the classroom?

13. Mariscal, Judith, and Eugenio Rivera. “Mobile Communications in Mexico in the Latin American Context.” Information Technologies and International Development3.2 (2007): 41-55. Print.

This article focused on the increasing usage of cell phones in teens from Mexico. In recent years, the rate of cell phone use increased at a rapid rate, giving youth a different, less personal way of communicating with each other. The author argues that this growing use of cell phones is causing changes in youth behavior and the way they interact with each other. Many of the youth she interviewed personally saw no difference between cellphone communication and face to face communication. Since this study’s been conducted, internet has been added onto cell phone plans and I wonder if Facebook has increased the communication gap between youth. What does the development of cell phone media have to do with the way youth live their lives and does it help them have more ambitious career goals?

14. Haugue, Chelsea. “Teaching Youth Media through International Exchange.” The International Journal of Critical Pedagogy3.3 (2011): 113-34. Print.

This article focuses on a program used in Oaxaca, Mexico that brings youth in contact with other cultures through the use of media. Youth from rural Oaxaca are taught about media sources by students in the U.S. and then are expected to create projects that display the skills they learned from their new friends in the U.S. They were taught how to use cameras, how to blog, and how to create podcasts. The authors concluded that this creates an environment for growth and media literacy. This would be useful to my research because I think it would be interesting to see how internet media fosters interaction with youth from other countries. Would such a program be possible in rural Guanajuato and would it be beneficial to the youth? Do they have available resources?

15. Meyrowitz, Joshua. “Media, Situations, and Behavior.” No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior. New York: Oxford UP, 1985. Print.

This chapter of this book talks about how people adjust their behaviors depending on the physical setting of the situation as well as the nature of the situation. Someone will act different if they are at church then if they were at a basketball game. Situations determine behavior. He then takes this a step further and indicates there is a parallel change in behavior when it comes to the media. One’s behavior will change depending on the media environment. Where as one might listen intently and in a serious manner when watching the news on tv that war has erupted overseas, one will talk and laugh and comment throughout a sitcom. When the president of the United States is doing an interview with a reporter for the tv news, he is not going to act like he is casually chatting with a friend, but neither is he going to speak like he is giving the Gettysburg address. The media affects our behaviors. This leads me to question whether the impact of the media goes further to affect the way we view the world and how we view ourselves. How does it impact the plans we make for our own futures? Our behaviors definitely reflect how we feel in certain situations and how seriously we take one situation over another. How does this in turn affect who we become?

16.  Wilcox, Brad, and Timothy G. Morrison. “Un Programa De Alfabetizacion Desarrollado En Comunidades Rurales De Guanajuato, Mexico: 17 Anos De Experiencia.” Lectura Y Vida(2009): 80-89. Print.

In a study done by two BYU professors, Brad Wilcox and Timothy G. Morrison, it was found that adults in Guanajuato’s rural villages have a lowered motivation to become literate. Surprisingly, adults that were participating in a literacy program today displayed lacking motivation when compared to the adults who participated in this same program several years ago. This is due to an increasing sense of security in the monetary aid they receive from relatives working in the United States (Wilcox, Morrison). If they do not see a need to search for a better job, they do not see the need to become literate. These professors and I met briefly to discuss the topic of my research and Wilcox suggested that I take this a step further and analyze whether these adults were conditioned a certain way through media exposure in their youth. Can there be a connection between the lack of motivation in becoming literate, and the information and ideas communicated to them through the media?
17. Barragán, Carmen C. “Medios Masivos De Comunicación Y Su Influencia En La Educación.” Odiseo: Revista Electrónica De Pedagogía3.6 (2003). Print.
This article is actually what I’ve been looking for since I started doing research. It tells me what has already been researched concerning youth and the media. This will give me a better idea of what gaps I could possibly fill in with my research this summer and it aids me in coming up with more questions for interviews. Barragán brings up a very interesting point. To sum up the influence had by the media on youth, she introduces the concept of “dying youth generation.” Media, encompassing all forms of mass communication, is introducing the youth of this time to adult material, having to do with sex, drugs, violence, at a very young age. It also introduces them to other very emotional topics of life that aren’t usually experienced until adulthood. With this, youth are maturing more quickly and experiencing mature emotions through the media, instead of through personal experience. Youth of this generation are much more open, liberal, and knowledgeable of social issues than their parents and are demanding more and more to be treated like adults. This article also talks extensively about media and education. It argues that if teachers want to keep students interested, they will have to be willing to go past the obvious textbook sort of answers and accept opinions that may have developed through the media. With access to information from around the world, new perspectives and manners of thinking arise and teachers must accept the change and appreciate that there is more than just one way to see things. This article is very, very useful to me for the project I am working on this summer. The author is suppporting my idea that media does affect the way youth view education, although not in the same approach I wanted to adopt. She argues that youth will challenge their teachers more throughout the learning process and will choose to challenge themselves more because of their opening perspective of the world. I really like the approach she took.
18. Reina, Leticia G. “Juventud Y Medios De Comunicación. La Televisión Y Los Jóvenes: Aproximación Estructural a La Programación Y Los Mensajes.” ÁMBITOS11.12 (2004): 115-29. Print.
This article is concerned with television making the youth as a target audience. She argues that television has become a source of media that will display anything to get viewership, no matter how negative or demoralizing that may be. She believes that most tv media lives by the creed: “it’s all worth it, if it’s for the audience.” The capabilities of information transmitted through television are great, in that they can reach the emotions of viewers and affect their thinking. She believes that part of the reason tv has shifted from an educational/entertaining purpose to a mere “viewership attainment” purpose is because big companies (Coca-Cola, etc) want to be present in the media. She quotes Chomsky, who says that those directing tv production tend to be partners with the companies and therefore promote these distorted points of view. She offers a long list of recurring themes present in tv shows targeted at youth, these representing a very non realistic life, sometimes causing negative youth behaviors. In interviews, most youth recognized that the media has an impact and that reality is distorted. They said they were being treated unfairly and that the media targeted them negatively by promoting stereotypes. This article opened my eyes to the possibility that youth already understand that the media tends to show programs that gain viewership, not that inspire to do good necessarily. I want to understand the different opinions that they may have. While some themes are negative, do some youth see some good in tv shows? Do any feel that they gain valuable knowledge of social/life problems that they were previously unaware of? Can this new awareness lead them to choose a career or cause to pursue?
19. Uribe, Nora. “La Telenovela: Amiga or Enemiga?” Temas De Comunicacion(2011): 121-47. Print.
This source gives an extensive history on the Latin telenovela and how it came about. This article discusses the reasons that women watch telenovelas and the ideas that the Latin woman comes in contact with through the telenovela, some of which are: she watches them as a form of distraction, it is a way for her to see someone deal with bigger problems than she has, she turns to novelas for personal ideas and a means of obtaining advice, they begin to see the “ideal woman” as someone who is decided and brave, the “ideal woman” is someone who is “blonde, beautiful, white, and elegant,” to some they serve as a training guide on how to be wives and mothers. I find it very interesting that a number of women who watch these shows turn to them for those reasons. They are so exaggerated from the truth that it surprises me that anyone would turn to such a show for advice and as a “learners manual.” I feel like if they do this, they will invite drama into their own lives, but I could be wrong. I wonder if young girls who are exposed to novelas also adopt these beliefs and allow the perceptions portrayed on telenovelas to influence their daily living.
20.  Becerra Navarro, Ana Bele, and Ana Alvarez Blanco. “La Pasividad Como Principal Consecuencia De La Influencia De La Television En El Publico Infantil.” Glosas Didacticas 13 (2005): 51-63. Print.
This article shows that more TV viewing leads to passivity in young viewers.  Instead of reading a book, they simply watch stories, taking the “work” out of leisure.  The authors argue that if TV viewing is not regulated by the parents, youth will become passive and lose interest in learning and hard work.  They created a term: “telebasura,” which basically means “trash TV.”  They argue that trash is on the air during the hours that children spend awake, watching TV.  They urge governments to lobby for more appropriate TV shows to air during that time so that kids will at least be influenced positively.  They also urge parents to limit the time they allow for their kids to watch TV so that they do not passively encourage passivity in their own children.  I think this will be something good for me to look at when I am studying the effects of the media on youth in rural Mexico.  Do the parents spend as much time watching TV?  Or do they encourage recreational activities that are active?  I know that there is telebasura playing on TVs all over Mexico, but do the parents try to stop their kids from watching telenovelas and other inappropriate shows?  Or do they allow them to watch simply because they don’t have many choices offered to them in a rural village?
21. Meza, Tania. “Las Telenovelas Juveniles Mexicanas Y Las Adolescentas Obesas.” Revista Mexicana De Ciencias Politicas Y Sociales48 (2006): 83-94. Print.
This article is concerned with Mexican telenovelas and how they affect young girls about their body image. Meza argues that when there is an obese girl in a novela, she tends to by a certain “type” of person, always nice and submissive to her popular classmates so that she is part of a group. Since she cannot be pretty by their standards, she is the person who is always nice, keeps secrets, aids and understands because “she has no choice.” If she is not these things, then she will not have friends. Young girls view these telenovelas and think that fat is ugly, and that an overweight girl cannot get a boyfriend, which would not be a problem if novelas didn’t also portray that having a boyfriend is the ideal way to live out your teen years. Novelas certainly aren’t the determining factor in how a girl is going to behave her teenage years, but they definitely can have an influence. It is important that the perception of beauty is changed so that girls do not struggle with liking their own body image through adolescence. This article is relevant to my research because it discusses the influence of novelas on teens and how those novelas distort reality to be something that it is not, and moreover, that it shouldn’t be.
22. Cantu, Elizabeth Angelica (2009). Latinas in the city: a discussion of how young Mexican women identify and engage with Sex and the City. Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /ETD -TAMU -1612.

This study interviewed twenty college-educated women from Mexico about how they identified with the popular culture of the TV show, Sex and the City.  These woman told Cantu that they preferred to watch TV from other countries, such as the U.S. because they felt that those shows better represented the experiences they live throughout their lives.  They stated that telenovelas do not represent them or their experiences well and show a traditional, patriarchal society, rather than a more modern one that they live in (however still patriarchal).  This study is relevant to my research because it shows the changes that are happening in the perspectives and opinions of Mexican women, with their ideas being more modern and they are developing different views of family, ways of looking and living, and new views of the female body.  They feel that telenovelas do not represent them or reality.  I want to know if youth in Mexico have access to entertainment media that is not made in Mexico, such as US films and shows.  Is it harder for them to gain access to these shows, therefore making it harder for them to identify with a new reality and making it easier to identify with novelas?

23. “Top 10: Novelas Juveniles – Univision Novelas Y Series.” Univision.com. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://novelasyseries.univision.com/top-10/slideshow/2010-04-12/top-10-novelas-juveniles&gt;.

While this is not a scholarly source or website, it is informational and relates well to my project. It is a list of the top ten youth novelas throughout the last two decades and while it does not explain the effects they had on viewership, it is clear that they appealed greatly to the young population and that they provided most of their viewership. Each novela on the list provides a picture and a short description of the show, most of which are about romance, and rich, beautiful youth. Although these are not the same novelas that are being watched by my target population, it gives me a good idea what production companies portray in order to gain that young fanbase. It would be good for me to study the plots of these novelas or maybe watch a few episodes as well as to study those that are playing now so that I could understand the answers I will receive through interviews and interactions with the youth in Mexico.
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